awasan Industri Morowali (FOTO: Dok. PT IMIP)

Manufaktur Global Melambat, Indonesia Kian Melesat

Agrofarm.co.id-Kuartal I tahun 2019 diwarnai dengan perlambatan sektor manufaktur di beberapa belahan dunia. Disebutkan dalam laporan yang dirilis United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), ini terjadi karena dampak perang dagang Amerika Serikat dan China serta pemberlakuan tarif dari Uni Eropa.

Sekretaris Jenderal Kementerian Perindustrian Achmad Sigit Dwiwahjono mengakui kondisi tersebut, dengan indikasi permintaan yang menurun di pasar. Saat ini perekonomian global sedang melambat, karena ada faktor-faktor internasional. Kondisi ini berimbas pada produksi sektor industri di sejumlah negara dunia, tuturnya di Jakarta, Jumat (11/10/2019).

Berdasarkan data UNIDO, pada kuartal I-2019, tingkat pertumbuhan manufaktur dari negara-negara industri hanya sekitar 0,4 persen dibandingkan periode yang sama di tahun sebelumnya. Penurunan ini terjadi secara konsisten di setiap triwulan, yang sebelumnya mencapai 3,5 persen pada akhir 2017.

Contohnya, Amerika Utara mencatat tingkat pertumbuhannya secara year-on-year (y-o-y) hanya 1,8 persen. Ini menunjukkan penurunan 2,5 persen dari capaian pada kuartal IV-2018.

Berikutnya, tingkat pertumbuhan negatif dialami oleh Amerika Latin pada kuartal pertama tahun ini. Kontraksi terjadi 1,2 persen dibanding periode yang sama tahun sebelumnya, terutama disebabkan oleh resesi yang berkelanjutan dari Argentina dan penurunan angka manufaktur Brasil.

Sementara itu, akibat ketidakpastian akibat rencana Inggris menarik diri dari Uni Eropa (Brexit) akan berdampak bagi masa depan ekonomi di wilayah tersebut. Merujuk data UNIDO, pertumbuhan sektor industri manufaktur di Eropa hanya 0,3 persen.

Selanjutnya, data kuartal pertama tahun ini menunjukkan pula tingkat pertumbuhan sektor manufaktur yang anjlok secara y-o-y dialami oleh dua negara ekonomi besar di wilayah Eropa, yakni Jerman dan Italia, yang masing-masing turun 2,3 persen dan 0,9 persen.

Data UNIDO juga memperlihatkan, pertumbuhan sektor industri yang negatif di beberapa negara Asia, antara lain adalah Taiwan -3,7 persen, Korea Selatan -1,7 persen, Jepang -1,1 persen, dan Singapura -0,3 persen. Namun, di antara negara Asia lainnya tersebut, pertumbuhan justru meningkat di Indonesia dan Vietnam yang masing-masing sebesar 5,1 dan 4,1 persen.

Menurut Kepala Statistik UNIDO Shyam Upadhyaya, meskipun secara global mengalami perlambatan, pertumbuhan sektor manufaktur di skala menengah dan berbasis teknologi tinggi tetap lebih dominan dibanding sektor yang teknologinya rendah. Ini merupakan suatu pergeseran menuju manufaktur yang berteknologi tinggi dan menunjukkan bahwa perubahan struktural sedang berlangsung, ungkapnya.

Sebelumnya, Menteri Perindustrian Airlangga Hartarto mengemukakan, Indonesia sedang merevitalisasi industri manufaktur melalui implementasi peta jalan Making Indonesia 4.0. Upaya ini merupakan sebuah strategi kesiapaan dalam memasuki era industri 4.0 serta mengejar target menjadi bagian dari 10 negara dengan perekonomian terbesar di dunia pada tahun 2030.

Salah satu upaya yang kami lakukan adalah mengakselerasi industri manufaktur nasional agar terus melakukan inovasi melalui pemanfaatan teknologi modern dan kegiatan litbang. Hal ini diyakini juga dapat memacu produktivitas lebih efisien sehingga mendongkrak daya saing industri kita, paparnya.

Menperin menambahkan, guna mewujudkan sasaran tersebut, pemerintah saat ini telah bertekad untuk semakin menciptakan iklim investasi yang kondusif. Kebijakan strategis yang sudah dijalankan, antara lain memberikan kemudahan izin usaha serta memfasilitasi insentif fiskal dan nonfiskal.

Salah satu kunci sukses dari penerapan industri 4.0 adalah peningkatan investasi, terutama berkaitan dengan pengembangan industri baru. Sebab, upaya tersebut akan memperkuat dan memperdalam struktur manufaktur nasional. Selain itu juga akan terjadi transfer teknologi dari investor, imbuhnya.

PDB dari sektor manufaktur di Indonesia mencapai Rp565 triliun pada kuartal II tahun 2019, meningkat dibanding perolehan di kuartal I-2019 sebesar Rp555 triliun. Capaian kuartal kedua tersebut tertinggi, karena rata-rata PDB manufaktur Indonesia per kuartal sekitar Rp468 triliun dari periode 2010-2019. irsa

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